FULL LIST: Oxford dictionary adds okada, danfo, mama put, tokunbo, 25 others in latest update

Oxford English Dictionary said it has added 29 Nigerian words and expressions in the January updates to the dictionary.

Oxford English Dictionary revealed in a blogspost posted on the dictionary’s website that the 29 Nigerian entries form part of the more than 550 new words, senses, and sub-entries added to the Oxford English Dictionary

Oxford English Dictionary ’s World English editor, Danica Salazar, said: “The majority of these new additions are either borrowings from Nigerian languages, or unique Nigerian coinages that have only begun to be used in English in the second half of the twentieth century, mostly in the 1970s and 1980s.”

‘Next tomorrow,’ is one of the new entries into the dictionary. The expression is regarded as the oldest among the over 25 uniquely Nigerian words/expressions.

According to Salazar, ‘next tomorrow’ was first used in written English as a noun in 1953, and as an adverb in 1964.

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Kannywood, which refers to the film industry in northern Nigeria, is deemed the youngest among the lot.

Others such as ‘buka,’ ‘bukateria’ and ‘severally’ also made the dictionary.

The full list of the new entries is below:

  • agric, adj. & n.: A. adj.: 1. Of, relating to, or used in agriculture; = agricultural adj. Now chiefly West African.2. Nigerian English. Designating an improved or genetically modified variety of crop or breed of livestock, especially a type of commercially reared chicken that is bred to grow quickly to a large size. Frequently contrasted with native.B. n.: Nigerian English. Agricultural science as an academic subject or course. Also as a modifier.
  • barbing salon, n.: A barber’s shop.
  • buka, n.: A roadside restaurant or street stall with a seating area, selling cooked food at low prices. Cf. Frequently as a modifier, as in buka food.
  • bukateria, n.: A roadside restaurant or street stall with a seating area, selling cooked food at low prices.
  • chop, v./6: To acquire (money) quickly and easily. Frequently in negative sense: to misappropriate, extort, or embezzle (funds). Also intransitive.
  • chop-chop, n./2: Bribery and corruption in public life; misappropriation or embezzlement of funds. Also as a modifier.
  • danfo, n.: A yellow minibus that carries passengers for a fare as part of an informal transport system in Lagos, the largest city in Nigeria. Also as a modifier, esp. in danfo bus.
  • to eat money, in eat, v.: to acquire money dishonestly; to misappropriate, extort, or embezzle funds.
  • ember months, n.: The final four months of the calendar year (September to December), esp. considered together as a period of heightened or intense activity.
  • flag-off, n.: 1. The official start or commencement of an event or undertaking. ; the start of a race. Now chiefly Indian English and South-East Asian.
    2. Indian English and Nigerian English. figurative. The official start or commencement of an event or undertaking.

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  • to flag off in flag, v.: b. transitive. Indian English and Nigerian English. In extended use: to start (an event or undertaking).
  • gist, n./3: Idle chat, gossip. Also: an instance of this, a rumour or piece of gossip.
  • gist, v./2: To chat, gossip.
  • guber, adj.: Of or relating to a governor or governorship
  • Kannywood, n.: The Nigerian Hausa-language film industry, based in Kano; Kano regarded as the centre of this industry.
  • K-leg, n.: A condition in which one or both of a person’s knees are turned inwards, resulting in a noticeable gap between the feet when standing with the knees touching; = knock-knee n. Also (depreciative): a person affected with this condition. Now chiefly Nigerian English.
  • mama put, n.: A street vendor, typically a woman, selling cooked food at low prices from a handcart or stall. Also: a street stall or roadside restaurant run by such a vendor; (as a mass noun) the type of food sold by such vendors.
  • next tomorrow, n. & adv.: A. n. The day after tomorrow.
    B. adv. On the day after tomorrow.
  • non-indigene, adj. & n.: A. adj. Not native. In later use chiefly West African: belonging to an ethnic group considered not to be indigenous to a particular area.
    B. n. West African. A member of an ethnic group considered not to be indigenous to a particular area.
  • okada, n.: In Nigeria: a motorcycle which passengers can use as a taxi service.
  • to put to bed, in put, v.: to give birth. Also: to give birth to (a child).
  • qualitative, adj.: West African. Of high quality; excellent.
  • to rub minds (together) in rub, v./1: (of two or more people) to consider a matter jointly; to consult and work together; to confer. Similarly to rub our (also their, etc.) minds together. Now chiefly Nigerian English.
  • sef, adv.: Used for emphasis after a statement or rhetorical question, often expressing irritation or impatience.
  • send-forth, n.: A celebration or event to mark a person’s departure; a send-off. Frequently as a modifier, as send-forth ceremony, send-forth party, etc.
  • severally, adv.: On several occasions; repeatedly.
  • tokunbo, adj.: Denoting an imported second-hand product, esp. a car.
  • zone, v.: To allocate a nomination for (a political office) to a candidate from a particular region, under the zoning system: see zoning n. Additions. Also with the candidate as object of the verb. Usually in passive.
  • zoning, n.: The system or practice of allocating nominations for certain political offices to candidates from particular regions, as part of an unofficial power-sharing arrangement within a political party, intended to produce balanced regional representation.

You can see the full list of words to be added in this Oxford English Dictionary update here.

The Oxford English Dictionary publishes four updates a year. The next update will be added to the dictionary in March 2020.