Mum & Child – Tribune Online https://tribuneonlineng.com Breaking News in Nigeria Today Fri, 14 Jun 2019 19:35:14 +0000 en-GB hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.2.1 https://tribuneonlineng.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/logo.jpg Mum & Child – Tribune Online https://tribuneonlineng.com 32 32 118125416 Marijuana could affect fertility in women, reduce sperm count https://tribuneonlineng.com/218681/ Sat, 15 Jun 2019 02:19:15 +0000 https://tribuneonlineng.com/?p=218681 Tribune Online
Marijuana could affect fertility in women, reduce sperm count

fertility

MARIJUANA could be linked to fertility issues in women and men, researchers warn in a report by the Daily Mail on Thursday. The drug, now legal in most US states and all of Canada, has been tipped as a therapeutic for all kinds of ailments, with one study even suggesting it could boost sperm counts. […]

Marijuana could affect fertility in women, reduce sperm count
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Marijuana could affect fertility in women, reduce sperm count

fertility

MARIJUANA could be linked to fertility issues in women and men, researchers warn in a report by the Daily Mail on Thursday.

The drug, now legal in most US states and all of Canada, has been tipped as a therapeutic for all kinds of ailments, with one study even suggesting it could boost sperm counts.

But researchers at Western University in London, Ontario, Canada, say the broad picture of evidence suggests cannabis is linked to decreased sperm counts, hampered ovulation and reduced odds of conceiving.

The team is now calling for more research into how the drug affects reproductive health, especially because of increased use in US states and countries where pot is legalized.

Here are five things couples who are looking to get pregnant should consider when it comes to marijuana use:

Bala Muhammed rejects state police, sets up security trust fund to empower traditional rulers

  1. THC AFFECTS REPRODUCTIVE TISSUES

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the psychoactive compound responsible for the euphoric, ‘high’ feeling often associated with marijuana.

THC interacts with CB1 receptors in the central nervous system and brain and creates the sensations of euphoria and anxiety.

Studies have shown that THC acts on receptors not just found in the brain but in the reproductive organs of both males and females.

 

  1. CANNABIS CAN DECREASE SPERM COUNT

Past studies has found that semen quality, and male fertility, can be negatively affected by marijuana use.

A 2011 study found that men who smoked marijuana more than once a week saw their total sperm count decrease by almost 30 percent.

And an October 2018 study looked at semen samples from more than 400 men screened for infertility.

Men who had used cannabis at least once had less volume and a decreased motile count, meaning how sperm that can move, researchers told DailyMail.com at the time.

The men were also at an increased risk of sperm that was abnormally shaped, which can affect its ability to reach and penetrate an egg.

Although how pot affects sperm is not exactly understood, new research has shown the drug may alter DNA, leading to worse sperm quality.

 

  1. SMOKING POT CAN DELAY OR PREVENT OVULATION

A 2007 study in the Journal of Women’s Health looked at more than 200 women and found that occasional marijuana use was linked to menstrual cycle delays of up to three-and-a-half days.

Another study found that moderate-to-heavy marijuana users were more likely to have an ovulatory menstrual cycles, meaning no ovulation occurs.

Researchers believe pot use may disrupt the release of gonadotropins, hormones that stimulate the ovaries, and thereby affect menstrual cycles.

However, other lifestyle factors could be having an effect on fertility, said Dr Sara Ilnitsky, a reproductive endocrinology and infertility fellow at Western University.

‘If someone already has some underlying fertility problem, if you’re then also reducing the amount of sperm available or changing when the egg is being released, that could further impact your ability to get pregnant,’ she told the Canadian Press.

 

  1. MARIJUANA DOESN’T SEEM TO AFFECT COUPLES WITHOUT FERTILITY ISSUES

A 2018 study from Boston University found that marijuana doesn’t lower a couple’s chances of getting pregnant.

After accounting for variables such as frequency of intercourse, the researchers  found that the probability of conceiving after 12 menstrual cycles was similar among couples who used cannabis than those who didn’t.

And a data analysis from the National Survey of Family Growth found that neither pot use nor frequency of pot use affected time to pregnancy.

But the team of the new study says that the results are likely from couples that are not experiencing fertility issues.

‘For couples with infertility, the changes in ovulatory function and sperm count associated with smoking marijuana could compound their difficulty with conceiving,’ they wrote.

 

  1. MORE RESEARCH IS NEEDED LOOKING INTO POT’S EFFECTS ON FERTILITY

Currently, 10 states and Washington DC, have legalized recreational weed and 33 states have legalized medical marijuana.

Studies that have looked at cannabis and fertility are most small and non-randomized, the researchers point out.

Additionally because there different concentrations and strains of pot, that also can confound the data.

‘Reliance on self-reported marijuana use introduces inaccuracy, especially where the drug is illegal, and omits valuable information on route and dose,’ they write. ‘The findings should be interpreted with caution.’

While the team suggests that men and women cut out recreational marijuana use altogether if they’re looking to get pregnant, anyone who is using the drug therapeutically would need to have a risk-benefit discussion with a fertility doctor before stopping use completely.

Courtesy: Dailymail.co.uk

 

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Impact of bone marrow transplantation on patients with sickle cell disorder https://tribuneonlineng.com/217156/ Sat, 08 Jun 2019 02:19:32 +0000 https://tribuneonlineng.com/?p=217156 Tribune Online
Impact of bone marrow transplantation on patients with sickle cell disorder

sickle cell

INTRODUCTION The last few decades have seen the evolution of sickle cell disorder (SCD) from a lethal condition, to a chronic disorder that is increasingly compatible with good quality lives and longer life expectancies. In high-income countries, about 95% of children with sickle cell anaemia will live to be 18 years old. For those who […]

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Impact of bone marrow transplantation on patients with sickle cell disorder

sickle cell

INTRODUCTION

The last few decades have seen the evolution of sickle cell disorder (SCD) from a lethal condition, to a chronic disorder that is increasingly compatible with good quality lives and longer life expectancies. In high-income countries, about 95% of children with sickle cell anaemia will live to be 18 years old. For those who reach adulthood,the average life-expectancy is about 55 years. Even in Nigeria, we have several men and women with the sickle cell anaemia who are grandparents and or retired pensioners. The use of hydroxyurea, the only approved therapy for SCD, has significantly decreased the frequency and severity of pain crises and of the lethal acute chest syndrome, resulting in greater survival.

However, Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) is the only cure for SCD which offers a chance to live a normal quality and duration of life. Although sickle cell anaemia (Hb SS) and sickle cell beta zero thalassemia (Hb Sb thal) phenotypes typically represent those at highest risk for complications and the most likely to want a bone marrow transplant (BMT), other phenotypes, such as Hb SC or Hb Sb+ thal, are not always spared the complications of SCD.

 

How a bone marrow transplant works

Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside your bones that makes blood-forming cells. Blood-forming cells are immature cells (also called blood stem cells) that grow into the 3 types of cells, each with specialized functions, within our blood circulation. They are red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. When they become mature, these cells leave the bone marrow and enter the blood circulation. Healthy bone marrow and blood cells are essential for normal lives. Different diseases, such as SCD, can impair the function of the bone marrow. When this happens, a normal bone marrow transplant can effect a cure. The normal bone marrow stem cells are transplanted to replace the unhealthy bone marrow stem cells.

Before transplant, chemotherapy (with or without radiotherapy), is applied to destroy the unhealthy bone marrow cells. Healthy bone marrow cells are aspirated from the bone marrow of a person (the donor) whose body cells (known as HLA) would have been shown to match those of the person (the recipient) to be transplanted. Bone marrow cells from the donor are infused into the blood stream of the recipient through an intravenous (I-V) catheter. It is just like receiving a blood transfusion. Once in the circulation, the bone marrow cells from the donor find their way into the recipient’s bone marrow. There, they grow and start to make healthy blood cells.

 

Source of haemopoietic (blood-forming) stem cell transplants (HSCT)

There are 3 sources of blood-forming stem cells used in transplants. They are:

  • Bone marrow: The soft, spongy tissue inside of bones
  • Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC): From the circulating blood (difficult to obtain)
  • Umbilical cord blood: Collected from the umbilical cord and placenta of newborn babies

If you need a bone marrow transplant, the doctor will first test family members to try to find a matching donor. If a match donor is not found in your family, your doctor can search the “Be the Match Registry”, which has 22.5 million people and 601,000 cord blood units worldwide. This is mostly accessible in high income countries. For some patients, doctors at some hospitals will look for a donor who matches half of your HLA markers. This type of transplant is a haplo-identical transplant(also called a half-matched or partially matched related transplant). In these transplants, donors and patients share half-matches of the HLA markers. Parents are a half-match for their children and vice versa. Siblings (brothers and sisters) have 50% (1 out of 2) chance of being a half match for each other.

Not all transplant centres will do haplo-identical transplants. But it may be suggested as an option for you if your doctor cannot find a closely matched family member, unrelated donor, or cord blood unit.

 

When to transplant for sickle cell disorder (indications for transplant)

Indications are either directed to patients requiring lifelong transfusion due to a high risk of primary or recurrent strokes (stroke and elevated transcranial Doppler velocity), a significant impact on quality of life (frequently recurrent painful crises, priapism, acute chest syndrome, osteonecrosis of multiple joints, and after silent infarcts with neuropsychological decline), difficulty maintaining transfusion therapy due to the difficulty in finding compatible units (red cell alloimmunization), or the unique challenges of availability in Nigeria, patients with pulmonary hypertension, sickle-related liver injury, iron overload, and kidney damage (nephropathy).

 

Result of bone marrow transplant

BMT results in stabilization of organ function and gradual amelioration of sickle cell complications such as strokes, lung damage, and recurrent pain episodes.

The use of standard-intensity regimen BMT for children results in 90% overall survival, 82% to 100% disease-free survival (no more sickle cell complications). However 8% to 18% lose their graft after transplant (graft rejection) and 4% to related mortality. Reduce intensity chemotherapy strategies are increasingly being undertaken in recent years to offset toxicities. This is better tolerated and results in an 86% to 90% disease-free survival (no more sickle cell complications) – even in adult patients.

However, the likelihood of having a sibling being HLA-identical is only 25%, and some siblings will have SCD, further limiting the chance of having a suitable donor. Therefore, researchers have moved to investigate alternative donor sources.

Alternative-donor HSCT is defined as any donor other than a matched sibling, includes Matched Unrelated Donor Transplant (MUD), Mismatched Marrow Donor(less than fully-matched donor), Haplo-identical Donor (using at least a 50% matched, related donor-including father and mother), unrelated cord blood transplant (from any new born other than family relative). However, most of these approaches for SCD are presently being investigated in the context of clinical trials to determine their safety for patients with SCD. The study results will provide useful information about other donor options for patients with SCD.

 

Long term outcome and complications

BMT offers long-term protection from the complications of clinical and subclinical complications associated with SCD, regardless of donor type. Complications that commonly develop in patients with SCD, including Stroke, pulmonary hypertension, acute chest syndrome, proteinuria and haematuria, were not observed in patients after successful BMT. Following a successful BMT, patients with SCD also experience better overall quality of physical, psychological, and social functioning in most aspects by one year post-BMT. Toxicity is worst in older age groups (such as adolescents or young adults) and those with advance SCD. Hence the reduced intensity approach is being explored to reduce BMT-associated toxicities, such as veno-occlusive disease, Liver toxicity, neurotoxicity (seizures, stroke, and brain hemorrhage), growth failure in post-pubertal recipients, hypogonadism (as high as 70%), and sterility. A major concern following standard regimen BMT is sterility and hence attempts at reducing the intensity of the initial chemotherapy and preserving the patient’s fertility before transplant (banking of sperms in males and eggs in females) is encouraged.

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is another common complication after a BMT. It can affect different parts of the body, including the skin, eyes, mouth, stomach, and intestines. GVHD occurs because of difference between the cells of the body of the donor and those of the recipient.

 

There are two types of GVHD:

  • Acute GVHD:Develops in the first 100 or so days after transplant but may occur later. This primarily affects the skin, stomach, intestines, and liver.
  • Chronic GVHD: Usually develops 3-6 months after transplant, but signs may appear earlier or later. Someone who has had acute GVHD is more likely to have chronic GVHD. Acute and chronic GVHD can range from mild to severe.

GVHD is serious, but there are several options for treatment. The use of matched sibling donor rather than an unrelated donor reduces the risk of GVHD.

 

Conclusion

BMT for patients with SCD has progressed considerably. Many studies are ongoing to perfect matched sibling marrow, cord blood, or mobilized peripheral blood as the best source, with low graft rejection, low GVHD and high disease-free survival rates. For transplant-eligible patients without HLA-matched sibling donors, fully-matched, unrelated donor, cord blood or haplo-identical donor options appear to be the next best options, but they need to be done in a clinical trial setting. Ongoing studies in SCD should provide data that are currently lacking. However, for most patients in Nigeria who wish to undergo a BMT, they for now need to travel abroad, usually with family members, including the donor, at a significant cost. Also, long-term care is required for many patients following BMT. Developing a BMT program adapted to the unique challenges encountered in Nigeria, with needed expertise and infrastructure locally, would help address some of these unique challenges.

NB: Sickle Cell Foundation Nigeria will be commencing Bone Marrow Transplant services by September 2019.

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Is Coconut oil a safe, effective treatment for diaper rash? https://tribuneonlineng.com/215755/ Sat, 01 Jun 2019 02:27:45 +0000 https://tribuneonlineng.com/?p=215755 Tribune Online
Is Coconut oil a safe, effective treatment for diaper rash?

BABY

BABY cosmetic products are gaining a lot of popularity these days.  They are marketed as best in quality which makes the consumers purchase them in prices much higher than the normal range of products. Manufacturers claim that their skin care products have soothing aromas and keep the baby’s skin cool and fresh as it maintains the […]

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Is Coconut oil a safe, effective treatment for diaper rash?

BABY

BABY cosmetic products are gaining a lot of popularity these days.  They are marketed as best in quality which makes the consumers purchase them in prices much higher than the normal range of products.

Manufacturers claim that their skin care products have soothing aromas and keep the baby’s skin cool and fresh as it maintains the skin’s moisture equilibrium.

In spite of so many advantages advertised by manufacturers, some babies’ skin react to commercial baby cosmetic products. Some babies react negatively to many additives added to these products. They cause serious health concerns in babies such as diaper or nappy rash.

Diaper rashes are a common problem for babies. It is not a disease, but an irritation of the skin which when severe, becomes painful and distressing for the baby, and a source of great anxiety for mothers. The baby may become fussy and cry when cleaning the skin. Fortunately, there are treatments available to help clear the baby’s diaper rash.

Coconut oil is a natural treatment that is commonly used to treat skin conditions and maintain good skin health. It may also help treat or prevent diaper rash.

Applying coconut oil to the skin may help relieve inflamed diaper rash and any accompanying redness, irritation, or itching. It also helps moisturise the skin and heal wounds.

Virgin coconut oil is processed natural oil obtained from fresh, mature coconut kernel. It displays several biological activities like anticancer, antimicrobial, analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory properties under laboratory conditions.

Peculiar Abiona, who sells coconut oil at the Ojoo Primary Health Care centre in Akinyele Local governemnt, Ibadan, says she has been selling coconut oil to nursing mothers for over a year at the primary healthcare centre

“Coconut oil is good for both babies and adults. It makes the skin of babies to be smooth. It clears any form of rashes on their baby’s skin and also protects the skin from the sun,” Abiona opined.

She added that aside from nursing mothers who use coconut oil, individuals with stomach ulcer and cough who drink the oil also get relieve from these conditions.

Mrs Adams Ezigbeme, a mother of four at the health facility declared, “My babies usually have alefo, but this baby did not have alefo since we started using pure coconut oil. Virgin coconut oil is called adiagbon in Yoruba. The dandruff on his head too is gone; it prevents rashes, eczema and so on, unlike many baby skin products.”

So, does virgin coconut oil really prevent diaper rash in babies? Although there is an  anecdotal evidence to support the use of coconut oil, especially when coupled with its other potential skin benefits, there is none that specifically examines the effect of coconut oil on diaper rash.

However, evidence suggests that it may prevent the yeast (Candida albicans) that cause most  diaper rash. In a 2009 edition of the Journal of Medicinal Foods, researchers at the University College Hospital (UCH), Coconut oil showed it can be used in the treatment of fungal infections in view of emerging drug-resistant Candida species.

They found that coconut oil was active against species of Candida at 100% concentration compared to fluconazole, the conventional antibiotics used in the hospital to treat candida infection.

In addition, researchers said coconut oil may prove useful in the treatment of skin rashes, whose symptoms including skin irritation (inflammation), pain or fever.

Another article published in January 2018 in the Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine found that coconut oil is effective at reducing the presence of bacteria, fungi, viruses and other pathogens, suggesting that the oil can be formulated into cream to prevent both fungal and bacterial organisms.

Moreover, clinical studies have revealed that virgin coconut oil improves the symptoms of many skins problems such as enzema, so justifying the use of the oil in many skin care formulations.

In a 2014 study, patients applied virgin coconut oil to the skin for a period of eight weeks and had better results than mineral oil based products. It improves skin hydration in children with eczema.

According to the researcher in the international Journal of Dermatology, coconut oil cannot cure eczema but it can soothe the skin, reduce the itching and irritation and lower risk of more infections.

Meanwhile, many other  plants  and   plant-based  products had  been  reported  to  be  effective  on diaper dermatitis and diaper rash. For instance, a combination of honey, olive oil, and beeswax can reduce the complications of nappy rash.

Researchers reported in the 2013 edition of International Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health that the combination of honey, olive oil, and beeswax could be used as an alternative or complementary treatment for the treatment of nappy rash.

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Why it is normal for some children below 5 years to stammer https://tribuneonlineng.com/214201/ Sat, 25 May 2019 01:43:31 +0000 https://tribuneonlineng.com/?p=214201 Tribune Online
Why it is normal for some children below 5 years to stammer

stuttering

IT is commonly believed that stuttering does not seriously affect young children. But children who stutter are very sensitive to how others react when they speak. Many children who stutter are bullied; many are withdrawn from social situations when other children and adults do not have the patience to listen to what they have to […]

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Why it is normal for some children below 5 years to stammer

stuttering

IT is commonly believed that stuttering does not seriously affect young children. But children who stutter are very sensitive to how others react when they speak. Many children who stutter are bullied; many are withdrawn from social situations when other children and adults do not have the patience to listen to what they have to say.

But not all children are the same. Some stutter for one or two years without being aware of it or experiencing negative reactions. But for other children, the negative experiences start immediately. Studies of adults who stutter show that their negative experiences could result in a poorer quality of life and social isolation.

Stuttering is all about non-fluent speech and of all the speech disorders, it is the most difficult to treat because every child will go through that normal non-fluency stage, said Professor Dunni Arulogun, a speech expert at the Faculty of Public Health, University of Ibadan.

Ajimobi meets Buhari in Aso rock, says I wish Oyo people were more patient

Normal non-fluency is the process of speech development because speech is by learning; it is what the child hears us speak that is what the child will imitate.

“That is why it is said that shuttering sometimes runs in the family; it is not because it is genetic but because that is the pattern the child was exposed to. It is the same reason people make jest of people who are stuttering,” she added.

Professor Arulogun, however, added that stuttering is usually a childhood problem and commoner in boys than girls.

“Usually stuttering is a developmental part of speech. Girls develop speech faster than the boys for obvious reasons. For instance, toys for girls are such that the girls will talk, sing or do role play with.  The toys we buy for the boys do not involve much of talking when playing.

“So the girls develop speech faster than the boys but boys catch up later. So you find it more in boys but for children under five years, it will resolved on its own.”

However, Professor Arulogun declared that since every child will pass through shutter as a phase in the process of speech development, it is difficult to not know which child will transit to be a confirmed stutterer.

It is commonly believed that stuttering does not seriously affect young children. A study, however, showed that this is not usually the case because children are very sensitive to how others react when they speak.

The meta-analysis of all the available research on studies of the communication attitudes and thinking of children who stutter found that children who stutter struggle more with negative thoughts about the way, they talk than other children.

According to her, through most children would outgrow it, the few children that continue to stutter  may be due to environmental and biological factors.

She stated: “So when we see a child who stutters, it is good that they bring the child for an assessment. But the first treatment that we advocate is preventing the child from knowing that he or she stutters. We need to help them not to be conscious that they shutter.”

Once a child becomes conscious that he stutters, no matter how old the child is, he becomes a confirmed stutterer. So, the idea is to do an indirect therapy. We leave the child and treat the parents or adults around the child.

Parents are warned against shutting him up, making fun of him and so on to prevent the child from becoming conscious of that non-fluency of speech and hence becoming a chronic shutter at that stage.

Ironically, in the whole world nobody has a fluent speech. “Everyone has just mastered how to fill in the gap. Sometimes, you say ‘em em, okay, you see, what I mean,’ all those are filling in the gap or our non-fluency. Nobody has a fluent speech,” she added.

Treating children that are chronic stutters require another form of therapy. This will initially require a full understanding of when it started, what precipitates it and its causes.

Some stuttering happens when the child is about talking and once they start to talk, it eases off. Emotional situations sometimes aggravate stuttering in some individuals, too.

However, stuttering is of different types. It can be a repetition of certain words or certain syllabus; it can be the person merely halting his speech.

Professor Arulogun stated that there is no need to shout, scold, beat, stigmatise or make a jest of a child who shutters. “the moment you do and the child realizes it, the child becomes a stammer for life.

“So it is a lot of education, if you have a child that is under 5 years of age that shows this sign, please leave the child alone because overtime he or she will outgrow it. 90 per cent of them outgrows it.

Nonetheless, she pointed out that some cases of stuttering are related to problems in the brain, especially from a traumatic experience. Those that are psychogenic are sudden.

“I remembered a psychogenic case, the boy born abroad was brought back to Nigeria. Even though he wanted to go back, his parents refused. As a result, he stopped talking,” she added.

Ironically, sudden onset of stuttering in adults, Professor Arulogun stated may be suggestive that something is wrong in the brain like a stroke.

Researchers do not know why some people outgrow stuttering and others do not. They also do not know for sure why some develop a stutter in the first place, although numerous studies have pointed to several reasons.

Neuroscience shows that the brain function and structure of people who stutter differs from people who do not have a stutter. But since these studies have only considered adults, it is hard to tell if these neurological differences are a consequence of stuttering or the cause of it.

It’s rare for adults who stutter to outgrow stuttering. But many of them can learn to speak with much less tension and energy. A lot of adults get better at managing their stuttering in more situations. And many achieve more control and security.

Research shows that most approaches work, but we just have to figure out what’s helpful for a given individual. But the correct speech therapy combined with exposure therapy is the treatment that has proven to be the most effective.

Why it is normal for some children below 5 years to stammer
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Having heart condition can be barrier to having children https://tribuneonlineng.com/212442/ Sat, 18 May 2019 03:20:22 +0000 https://tribuneonlineng.com/?p=212442 Tribune Online
Having heart condition can be barrier to having children

heart condition

Do you know that pregnancy isn’t recommended for all women? Do you know that women born with some heart conditions or heart damage, if they get pregnant, may do so at their peril? No doubt, it is easy to forget how risky pregnancy and childbirth are in general. But for women with heart disease, there […]

Having heart condition can be barrier to having children
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Having heart condition can be barrier to having children

heart condition

Do you know that pregnancy isn’t recommended for all women? Do you know that women born with some heart conditions or heart damage, if they get pregnant, may do so at their peril?

No doubt, it is easy to forget how risky pregnancy and childbirth are in general. But for women with heart disease, there are increased risks to both the mother and her unborn baby. In certain cases that risk is significant enough that pregnancy is not recommended.

According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, among women who die during pregnancy or within a year afterwards, heart-related problems account for more than four in 10 deaths.

For women born with some heart defects, having a baby can be risky. It can be even more of a threat because pregnancy stresses the heart and circulatory system.

“Pregnancy carries some risk for women even without heart disease; however, there are increased risks to both the mother and the foetus in the woman with congenital heart disease. Such women may have adverse outcomes that could lead to disability or death,” said Dr Tosin Majekodunmi, a Consultant Cardiologist.

Majekodunmi, the Medical Director and Chief of Cardiology, Euracare Multi-Specialist Hospital, Lagos, stated that women with weak hearts often have complications in pregnancy and may even be advised not to get pregnant.

He declared, “in countries like the UK, they had found that the biggest reason why a woman in pregnancy may have an adverse outcome is not related to obstetric problem but related to heart problems.

“A large proportion of ladies who are pregnant, who have a heart condition that has not been recognised had adverse events in pregnancy; these included things like essential hypertension, weak heart or heart valves that are not allowing blood to leave the heart easily.

“For instance, a lady that we treated at Euracare Multi-Specialist Hospital, Lagos, had a heart valve that severely narrowed blood leaving her heart. It has allowed her to remain alive but if she tries to get pregnant or deliver with a heart like that, the likelihood of an adverse outcome was very high.”

Dr Majekodunmi declared that in pregnancy, the heart has to work twice as hard as it normally does, up till about the third trimester.

He added, If a pregnant woman has a heart that is just working on the edge of what it can cope with when not pregnant; when she is in labour and the heart output exceeds what the heart can cope with, the heart is bound to fail. She may suffer a heart failure; she can pass away because the heart suddenly gives up.

“If it has not been diagonised before, it will just happen at labour and the midwife will come out and say sorry we are not sure what happened, she did not make it.”

The cardiologist stated that the consequences of a heart condition in pregnant women may range from early miscarriage, preterm labour, heart failure, stroke, to breathing problems and abnormal heart rhythm issues (arrhythmia).

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Miscarriages occur more often in some of these women. More than a quarter of newborns have complications, such as being underweight, not growing well in the womb and respiratory distress at birth.

He stated, “such women are not advised to get pregnant until the problem(s) associated with their heart is assessed and something is done to fix it and reduce the risk.

“The most feared consequences obviously by anyone is dying either during the pregnancy or shortly thereafter and that is why we usually counsel these ladies to absolutely not get pregnant until their heart is fixed or can be fixed.”

Pregnancy requires the heart to work harder. Consequently, pregnancy may worsen a heart disorder or cause a heart disorder to produce symptoms for the first time.

Professor Adewale Sule Odu, a consultant, Obstetric and Gynaecologist, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, stated that pregnancy in women with heart problems is usually difficult.

According to Sule Odu, “If care is not taken, she may even die before delivery. The greatest problem the woman may have is during labour itself. In fact, such patients are not allowed to go into labour.

“I had a patient like that once. We managed to deliver her babies prematurely twice because she could not carry that pregnancy to term. But after the second delivery, she did not last for more than one year before she died. The pregnancy contributed to an early demise.”

After delivery, women with a severe heart disorder may not be out of danger for six months, depending on the type of heart disorder.

Professor Sule Odu added that women with kidney problems and sickle cell disease could also have challenges with pregnancy.

“Such women need to see the doctor before getting pregnant. They have to be assessed properly. It is not that they cannot deliver, but it is going to be a difficult situation also.  Some of these women may require having their babies through caesarian operation based on the kind of medical condition they have, too.”

These high-risk pregnancies, he stated, required specialist care, adding that unlike other pregnant women, their clinic appointments are shorter to monitor the baby’s development throughout the pregnancy.

He, however, stressed the importance of every woman capable of becoming pregnant seeking preconception care, regardless of whether she is planning to conceive.

Preconception care is aimed at identifying and modifying biomedical, behavioural, and social risks through preventive and management interventions. Key components include risk assessment, health promotion, and medical and psychosocial interventions.

Meanwhile, President, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) Dr Lisa Hollier, in an organisation news release stated that, “Most of these deaths are preventable, but we are missing opportunities to identify risk factors prior to pregnancy and there are often delays in recognising symptoms during pregnancy and postpartum, particularly for black women.”

The American Heart Association recommends taking the following precautions before getting pregnant: Watch your diet and limit your sodium intake, start (and maintain) 150 minutes of physical activity per week, stop using tobacco and alcohol and lose weight.

 

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Pregnant women who snack on nuts are more likely to have a smart child https://tribuneonlineng.com/210829/ Sat, 11 May 2019 02:36:52 +0000 https://tribuneonlineng.com/?p=210829 Tribune Online
Pregnant women who snack on nuts are more likely to have a smart child

Antenatal care partner

Pregnant women who munch on walnuts, almonds or pine nuts are more likely to have a brainy child, a study suggests. Spanish scientists found children whose mothers ate three 30g servings of nuts a week in the first trimester scored better on cognitive function, attention and memory tests. Nuts are rich in folate and essential […]

Pregnant women who snack on nuts are more likely to have a smart child
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Pregnant women who snack on nuts are more likely to have a smart child

Antenatal care partner

Pregnant women who munch on walnuts, almonds or pine nuts are more likely to have a brainy child, a study suggests.

Spanish scientists found children whose mothers ate three 30g servings of nuts a week in the first trimester scored better on cognitive function, attention and memory tests.

Nuts are rich in folate and essential fatty acids, which are thought to accumulate in brain tissue responsible for memory and attention spans.

The research of 2,200 mother-child pairs was carried out by the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal).

Florence Gignac, a predoctoral fellow in perinatal and pediatric epidemiology, led the study.

She said: ‘This is the first study to explore the possible benefits of eating nuts during pregnancy for the child’s neuro development in the long term.

‘The brain undergoes a series of complex processes during gestation and this means maternal nutrition is a determining factor in foetal brain development and can have long-term effects.

‘The nuts we took into account in this study were walnuts, almonds, peanuts, pine nuts and hazelnuts.

TIPS FOR A HEALTHY PREGNANCY

Pregnancy health charity Tommy’s gives a list of actions which would have a positive impact on the health of a pregnancy and the future child if done before the mother stops contraception.

Take folic acid

Taking 400mcg of folic acid daily from two months before stopping contraception can help protect babies from developing neural tube defects such as spina bifida.

Quit smoking

Smoking during pregnancy causes 2,200 premature births, 5,000 miscarriages and 300 perinatal deaths per year in the UK.

Be a healthy weight

Being overweight before and during pregnancy increases the risk of potentially dangerous conditions such as pre-eclampsia and diabetes.

Eat healthy and be active

A healthy mother is more likely to give birth to a healthy baby, and both will help maintain a safe body weight.

Speak to your GP if you are taking medication

Some medications may affect pregnancy, and it is best to check with a GP as soon as possible

Source: Tommy’s

‘We think the beneficial effects observed might be due to the fact the nuts provided high levels of folic acid and, in particular, essential fatty acids like omega-3 and omega-6.

‘These components tend to accumulate in neural tissue, particularly in the frontal areas of the brain, which influence memory and executive functions.’

To uncover how eating nuts during pregnancy affects a child’s future development, the researchers analysed more than 2,200 mother-child pairs living in Asturias, Guipuzcoa, Sabadell or Valencia.

During the women’s first and third trimesters, they completed questionnaires on their eating habits, which included their nut intake.

The children’s neurodevelopment was assessed via several ‘internationally validated standard tests’ at 18 months, five years and eight years old.

Results – published in the European Journal of Epidemiology – revealed the biggest benefit occurred in the group whose mothers ate the highest amount of nuts, with a weekly average of just under three 30g servings.

This is lower than the three-to-seven servings a week that is recommended in the healthy eating guide published by the Spanish Society of Community Nutrition.

‘This makes us think if the mothers consumed the recommended weekly average the benefits could be much greater,’ Ms Gignac said.

Health authorities in the UK and US do not have specific guidance on how many nuts we should be eating. However, the United States Department of Agriculture and the World Health Organization both advocate them as part of a healthy diet.

Despite the benefits of eating nuts during a woman’s first trimester, the same effects were not seen when the mothers munched on the snack later on in their pregnancies.

Study author Dr Jordi Júlvez, assistant research professor at ISGlobal, said: ‘This is not the first time we have observed more marked effects when an exposure occurs at a specific stage of the pregnancy.

‘Scientific literature speculates the rhythm of foetal development varies throughout the pregnancy and there are periods when development is particularly sensitive to maternal diet.’

The researchers stress that due to this being the first study to explore the effects of nuts on a child’s neurodevelopment, the results should be treated with ‘caution’.

‘We must work on reproducing them in the future with more cohort studies as well as randomised controlled trials,’ Dr Júlvez added.

Other studies have linked nuts to everything from low blood pressure and a reduced risk of diabetes to slower cognitive decline.

  • Courtesy: dailymail.co.uk

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Tips for having a great relationship?

Connecting with someone romantically, emotionally, and physically can be really amazing. But there’s a lot of work that goes into building a good relationship.

What are some tips for having a great relationship?

No relationship is perfect all the time. But in a healthy relationship, both people feel good about the relationship most of the time. A great relationship takes more than attraction — it takes work, and both of you have to be willing to put in the effort. Here are some tips for building a healthy relationship:

  • Love yourself. Being comfortable with who you are means you’ll be a happier partner.
  • Communicate. Talk to your partner about your feelings. Ask questions and listen to their answers. If you’re upset, say so — don’t make your partner try to figure out what’s up. Talking through problems builds trust and makes your relationship stronger. And it’s not all about how to deal with your problems — don’t forget to let them know when something they do makes you happy.
  • Be honest. Be truthful with each other about what you do, think, and feel. Honesty creates trust. Few things harm a relationship more than lies.
  • Give each other some space. Couple’s time is great, but spending ALL your time together isn’t. It’s healthy to have your own friends and interests outside of the relationship.
  • Agree to disagree. You’re not always going to see eye to eye, and that’s OK. The important thing is to respect each other’s opinions and ideas.
  • Forgive and ask for forgiveness. Everybody makes mistakes. Be willing to apologize for yours — and accept your partner’s apologies.
  • Support each other. When your partner does something great, tell them! Your partner should do the same for you.
  • Talk about sex…openly and honestly. Telling your partner what feels good and what you like and don’t like helps you have better sex. Never pressure your partner into doing something they don’t want to do, or let your partner pressure you — consent is a must.
  • Take care of your sexual health. Talk to your partner about how you’re going to protect each other against STDs and unintended pregnancy. Practice safer sex and get tested for STDs.

How do I know if my relationship is healthy?

It’s good to check in with yourself from time to time to see how you’re feeling about your relationship. The questions below focus on romantic and sexual relationships, but they can apply to other kinds of relationships, too. After you’ve asked yourself these questions, it could be helpful to answer them again from your partner’s perspective.

  • Does your partner listen to and respect your ideas?
  • Does your partner give you space to spend time with your friends and family?
  • Do you have fun spending time together?
  • Do you feel comfortable telling your partner when something they do upsets you?
  • Do you feel comfortable sharing your thoughts and feelings?
  • Can you tell your partner what you like sexually?
  • Does your partner make an effort to get along with your friends and family?
  • Is your partner proud of your accomplishments and successes?
  • Does your partner respect your differences?
  • Can you talk to your partner about birth control and/or safer sex?

Relationships can be complicated, but if you answered “yes” to all of these questions, there’s a good chance you’re in a healthy relationship. If you answered “no” to two or more questions, you might be in an unhealthy relationship.

How can I make my relationship better?

Keeping your relationship in great shape definitely takes work. Talk to your partner about things that you think could be better. Be clear about what’s bothering you, and be respectful. Good communication is a big part of solving problems. If you have trouble working through things on your own, you might consider getting help from someone outside your relationship. Sometimes talking with a counselor or therapist can help couples work through issues and improve their relationships.

  • Courtesy:  Planned Parenthood Federation of America

 

Pregnant women who snack on nuts are more likely to have a smart child
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Infertility, miscarriage? Check your blood grouping —Experts https://tribuneonlineng.com/208970/ Sat, 04 May 2019 02:21:04 +0000 https://tribuneonlineng.com/?p=208970 Tribune Online
Infertility, miscarriage? Check your blood grouping —Experts

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Do you know that your previous lover or husband’s blood type can affect your pregnancy now?  Well, a woman’s blood type could affect her fertility and influence her chances of getting pregnant, scientists have found. Experts warned that having a blood group that is incompatible with one’s partner can affect one’s chances of getting pregnant […]

Infertility, miscarriage? Check your blood grouping —Experts
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Infertility, miscarriage? Check your blood grouping —Experts

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Do you know that your previous lover or husband’s blood type can affect your pregnancy now?  Well, a woman’s blood type could affect her fertility and influence her chances of getting pregnant, scientists have found.

Experts warned that having a blood group that is incompatible with one’s partner can affect one’s chances of getting pregnant and having normal pregnancies in the future.

All humans have a blood group, either A, B, AB or O; that is either positive or negative, depending on whether a person has inherited a Rh (Rhesus) factor.

Rhesus factor is a protein found in red blood cells. Not all of us carry this factor and people who do are referred to as Rhesus positive and those who do not are referred to as Rhesus negative.

About 95 per cent of Nigerians is Rhesus Disease positive while the remaining five per cent are RhD negative.

Dr Kayode Obembe, a consultant obstetric and gynaecologist at Christus Specialist Hospital, stated that blood grouping could create trouble during pregnancy.

According to him, the Rh factor can cause problems if the woman is Rh negative and the unborn baby is Rh positive, which is called Rh incompatibility.

He added that these problems usually do not occur in a first pregnancy, but they can occur in other pregnancies later.

“Rhesus incompatibility is as a result of a mother developing antibodies against her baby. It will lead to the breakdown of the red blood cells in the baby. This can lead to the death of the newborn,” he added.

These antibodies can cross the placenta and break down the foetus’s red blood cells. In the developing world, such Rh incompatibility is one of the leading causes of illness and mortality in newborns.

In the newborn, Rh disease can result in jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), anaemia, brain damage, heart failure and death. It can also affect the mother’s mental state.

Dr Obembe stated that having a blood type with Rh negative factor is of concern in women rather than men because it is the mother who carries the baby in her womb.

However, he said in case of a miscarriage or abortion, women with Rh negative factor must ensure they take the Rhogam injection which is an  anti-body, to prevent the stimulation of immune reaction that can destroy the red blood cells of subsequent pregnancy in such women.

“It is important to check the blood group and Rh factor of the prospective husband and the prospective wife for compatibility or otherwise. It must be detected long before they got married,” he added.

Professor Adetunji Adeniji, a consultant obstetric and gynaecologist, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital Ogbomoso, Oyo State, corroborated that once a woman with Rh-negative factors mounts an antibody, it becomes a challenge for life, if she marries a partner with Rh positive factor.

According to Professor Adeniji, “if she gets married to an Rh positive partner and the baby she is carrying is Rh positive, the antibodies that she has developed in her own system will start attacking the blood of that baby and most of the time, the baby can die. In fact, when the dead baby is brought out, the foetus will look big due to anaemic  pregnancy.

“Now, the way out is that when a lady is negative and wants to terminate the pregnancy from a man with Rh positive, she can be given a Rhogam injection which is anti-antibody to protect her from forming an antibody against rhesus positive factor and that such an issue could be avoided in  the future.”

Professor Adeniji added that in a situatuion  where a woman repeatedly loses pregnancies, one of the factors that are ruled out is Rh factor.

“We check her blood for the antibody level to know if in the past, she had been exposed to Rh factor, which had set up antibody,” he added.

However, hope is not lost for women with Rh negative factor. He declared “the situation can be managed if you have the right facility. All they need to do for the baby is that as the baby’s blood cell is breaking down, you will be transfusing the baby in the womb

“The mother also needs to receive steroids to suppress the antibody that is formed. As soon as the baby gets to the age of viability, it is quickly delivered and managed as a child.”

He assured that it is better for every woman to know her blood group, and those that are Rh negative should be ready to take a Rhogam injection as prophylaxis against Rh issues if terminating a pregnancy or after delivery within 72 hours to be on the safe side.

The injection, he said is sold for between N7,000  and N15,000 depending on the country where it was manufactured.

Infertility, miscarriage? Check your blood grouping —Experts
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Women who use antibiotics for more than two months at a time are at increased risk of heart attack, stroke —Research https://tribuneonlineng.com/207153/ Sat, 27 Apr 2019 10:38:39 +0000 https://tribuneonlineng.com/?p=207153 Tribune Online
Women who use antibiotics for more than two months at a time are at increased risk of heart attack, stroke —Research

Experts believe the long-term use of antibiotics wipes out healthy bacteria in the gut – creating an imbalance that increases inflammation, narrows blood vessels and ends up damaging the heart. They think this creates a cumulative effect, so the more frequently a woman uses antibiotics during her lifetime, the greater the eventual risk. The researchers, […]

Women who use antibiotics for more than two months at a time are at increased risk of heart attack, stroke —Research
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Women who use antibiotics for more than two months at a time are at increased risk of heart attack, stroke —Research

Experts believe the long-term use of antibiotics wipes out healthy bacteria in the gut – creating an imbalance that increases inflammation, narrows blood vessels and ends up damaging the heart.

They think this creates a cumulative effect, so the more frequently a woman uses antibiotics during her lifetime, the greater the eventual risk.

The researchers, who tracked 36,500 women in the US, found over-60s who used antibiotics for more than two months were 32 per cent more likely to develop heart disease in the next eight years than those not taking the drugs.

For those aged 40 to 59, there was a 28 per cent increased risk.

NURTW: Yasin unites Ejiogbe, Tokyo in Ibadan

For younger women aged under 40, there was no discernible effect.

Researcher, Dr Yoriko Heianza, from Tulane University in New Orleans, said: ‘By investigating the duration of antibiotic use in various stages of adulthood we have found an association between long-term use in middle age and later life and an increased risk of stroke and heart disease during the following eight years.

‘As these women grew older, they were more likely to need more antibiotics, and sometimes for longer periods of time, which suggests a cumulative effect may be the reason for the stronger link in older age between antibiotic use and cardiovascular disease.’

The researchers, who published their findings in the European Heart Journal, stressed that even though the overall relative risk increased, for each individual the absolute risk remained small.

For every 1,000 women taking antibiotics for at least two months, just six would be likely to experience damage to their hearts or arteries, they said.

Antibiotics are designed to kill dangerous bacteria that cause illness and infection.

But in the process they also destroy beneficial bacteria, altering the balance of the gut ecosystem and increasing the risk of viruses, harmful bugs and infectious fungal organisms.

Fellow researcher Professor Lu Qi, an expert in nutrition at Harvard School of Public Health, said: ‘Antibiotic use is the most critical factor in altering the balance of microorganisms in the gut.

‘Previous studies have shown a link between alterations in the microbiotic environment of the gut and inflammation and narrowing of the blood vessels, stroke and heart disease.’

The study is the largest long-term investigation of the link between antibiotic use and heart disease ever carried out.

The most common reasons for the women taking antibiotics were lung infections, urinary tract infections, and dental problems.

Professor Qi added: ‘Our study suggests that antibiotics should be used only when they are absolutely needed.

‘Considering the potentially cumulative adverse effects, the shorter time of antibiotic use the better.’

The NHS is desperately trying to reduce antibiotic use in a bid to avert the looming superbugs crisis.

This is because overuse of antibiotics triggers the evolution of harmful bacteria to resist treatment.

The more antibiotics are used, the stronger superbugs become – and yet no new class of antibiotics have gone on sale since the 1980s.

More than 3,000 people a year already die in Britain as a result of the superbugs crisis and the NHS spends £180million a year tackling the problem.

Courtesy: dailymail.co.uk

 

Women who use antibiotics for more than two months at a time are at increased risk of heart attack, stroke —Research
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Mobile phone messages offer unique opportunities to boost immunisation in children —Study https://tribuneonlineng.com/206564/ Thu, 25 Apr 2019 02:00:18 +0000 https://tribuneonlineng.com/?p=206564 Tribune Online
Mobile phone messages offer unique opportunities to boost immunisation in children —Study

children

Experts in a new study have proved that sending reminder text messages to mothers of infants on routine childhood immunisation can promote full and timely completion of routine childhood immunisation in Nigeria. The study said sending reminder text messages can increase especially the rate and completion of measles and yellow fever immunisations, which till date have […]

Mobile phone messages offer unique opportunities to boost immunisation in children —Study
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Mobile phone messages offer unique opportunities to boost immunisation in children —Study

children

Experts in a new study have proved that sending reminder text messages to mothers of infants on routine childhood immunisation can promote full and timely completion of routine childhood immunisation in Nigeria.

The study said sending reminder text messages can increase especially the rate and completion of measles and yellow fever immunisations, which till date have been very low from previous surveys.

Professor Oladimeji Oladepo, the principal investigator of this study, entitled ‘Mobile phone reminder messages for uptake and completion of basic childhood immunisations by mothers in six geopolitical zones’ presented its findings at a dissemination workshop in Ibadan.

It was supported with funds from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

According to the study, the level of adherence to keeping timely routine immunisation appointment dates and completion of all immunisation was greater in the intervention group compared with the control with different completion rates by vaccines.

Completion BCG jumped from 41.1 per cent in the control group to 77.7 per cent in the intervention group. Completed measles coverage was 55.3 per cent in the intervention group unlike 26.8 per cent in the control group. Also, completed yellow fever coverage jumped from 23.9 per cent in the control group to 75.9 per cent in the intervention group.

The 10-month intervention study involved 3,500 consenting mothers of infants aged between zero and two months with at least one mobile phone randomly selected from primary health centres in six geopolitical zones of Nigeria, including the Federal Capital Territory.

Two rural local government areas from each state, including the Federal Capital Territory, were randomly selected and assigned to the intervention and control groups.

Messages that focused on issues such as the benefits of timely and full completion of immunisation as well as the consequences of non-completion of basic routine immunisation were sent three times in a week between 7.00 am and 7.15 am for 10 months to mothers of infants and their significant others in the intervention group.

Professor Oladepo said: “Several strategies implemented to promote routine immunisation uptake and its timely completion in Nigeria have yielded limited success thus necessitating new innovative approaches.

“One potential approach is the use of reminder text messages through mobile phones in mobilising mothers of infants in rural areas considering lower immunisation coverage and high level of phone ownership.

“The study is saying that using phone technology to promote full and timely uptake of vaccination by women in the rural areas work if it is done well and in the people’s own language and at they wanted it.”

The expert, however, said there was the need to scale up the study to build a national body of evidence with wider geographic spread and integrating data generated into a national database.

They also recommended exploring text messaging as a viable alternate channel of communication for increasing childhood immunisation coverage as well as the integrating m-health strategy into existing national immunisation policy.

Director, Primary Health care, Ganju Local Government, Bauchi state, Mr Idris Muhammed, stated the mobile phone reminders messages is a welcome development that will help track defaulters.

Mr Muhammed said that Nigeria currently spends a lot of money on supplementary immunisation to bridge gaps identified in routine immunisation

He, however, declared that the use of mobile phone reminders messages will be cheaper in tracking defaulting mothers and to increase public awareness on the importance of immunisation and its completion at the expected time.

In Nigeria, although full and timely completion of all childhood immunisations are one of the important goals of the Nigerian immunisation programme, trends in the immunisation coverage has consistently remained low with wide disparities between and within regions especially in rural areas.

Data from the Nigerian National Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) published in 2014 showed that 27 per cent, 29 per cent and 21 per cent of children aged 12 to 23 months were not immunised in 2003, 2008 and 2013 respectively.

The proportion of the fully vaccinated children as at first birthday in Nigeria has never reached 30 per cent in the last three consecutive national surveys.

Mobile phone messages offer unique opportunities to boost immunisation in children —Study
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Is your child prone to nosebleeds? https://tribuneonlineng.com/205466/ Sat, 20 Apr 2019 07:01:53 +0000 https://tribuneonlineng.com/?p=205466 Tribune Online
Is your child prone to nosebleeds?

Little Henry ran inside the house shouting that his nose was bleeding. His friends told his mother that his nose started to bleed a few minutes after he joined them to play football. Nose bleeds are common in young children, where it is usually mild. In fact, the majority will have stopped bleeding before they […]

Is your child prone to nosebleeds?
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Is your child prone to nosebleeds?

Little Henry ran inside the house shouting that his nose was bleeding. His friends told his mother that his nose started to bleed a few minutes after he joined them to play football.

Nose bleeds are common in young children, where it is usually mild. In fact, the majority will have stopped bleeding before they were assessed by a doctor when rushed to the hospital.

”Nose bleeds, or epistaxes, is a symptom and not a disease. Its cause may range from something that is not serious to something that is sinister; which is why whenever  a child starts bleeding from the nose the parent should show concern,” said Dr Ayotunde Fasunla, an Ear, Nose, and Throat specialist at the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan.

He declared that although any part of the nose can bleed, most children however bleed from the frontal or anterior part of their noses.

The nose is very prone to bleeding. This is because of the important role it plays in warming and humidifying the air we breathe. Large numbers of small blood vessels lie just under a thin layer of skin, which may bleed on any damage.

According to Dr Fasunla, causes of nose bleed in children could include something happening within the nose or outside the nose. “In the dry season, when the nose becomes a little bit dry, children try to pick the dry mucus. By doing so, they can tear the inner lining of the nose  which makes it to start bleeding.

Hausa gold miners in Osun State open up: We collect N10,000 per gram, land owners sell for N50,000 per gram to merchants

“Sometimes when the environment is very hot and with low levels of humidity, it could cause some people, especially the children, to bleed from their nose because of the change in the temperature.”

One study from the United States showed 40  per cent more attendances to the emergency department for nose bleeds in winter, while nose bleeds in parts of Africa are higher in the hot, dry season.

He added that more boys tend to bleed from their nose than girls during a fall when they hit their nose on the floor. Girls tend to be very careful whenever they are playing, unlike the boys that jump around and sustain injury from a fall.

Sometimes blunt trauma causes nosebleeds when children stick small objects up their noses or when adults try to extract those items.

Children who have nasal allergies are also more likely to have nosebleeds because they rub their noses and blow them more often.

Moreover, he declared that there is a possibility of a nose bleed when a child has a growth. Such growth could be present at birth or develop over time.

Although, most nose bleed in children occur due to injury say, a car accident or a punch, he added that some cases are due to health problems such as nasal infection, bleeding disorders, blood clotting disorders, chronic sinus infections and cancer.

However, if the bleeding is severe or persists for more than 30 minutes or is caused by a blow to the head or side effects of medication, she urged  that such a child be brought to the hospital to see a doctor.

Simple nose bleeds can usually be managed with simple treatments. “Every form of nose bleed needs medical attention because the mother did not know the cause of the nose bleeding, either it occurs frequently or regularly, it needs medical attention,” he added.

Simple nose bleeds treatments that can be used include applying pressure or ice to the nose to help to reduce blood loss.

He warned, however, that where the nose bleeds is due to growth within the nose, irrespective of the amount of pressure exerted, it may not cause the bleeding to stop.

A few common mistakes in treating nosebleeds are putting a cold wash on the forehead, bridge of the nose, back of the neck or under the upper lip. That doesn’t help stop nosebleeds at all. Also, pressing on the bony part of the nose doesn’t help stop nosebleeds because this is not pressing on where the blood is coming from.

So how can nosebleeds in children be prevented? Increasing the humidity in the room that the child sleeps in by using a humidifier also helps. Application of nasal saline to moisturise the noise and wash away any irritants and pollens every day is also good.

In a child with nasal allergies, treating those allergies with antihistamines will also help break the itch-bleeding cycle. And never allow anyone to smoke around the child.

Is your child prone to nosebleeds?
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